- French chemist (1742-1806), perfected a process for preparing sodium carbonate, contributing to the development of the use of minerals in the chemical industry. Karl Wilhelm Scheele - Swedish chemist, born in Stralsund (1742-1786). Discovered chlorine, glycerol and hydrocyanic (prussic) acid.Hydrocyanic acid:
Hydracid, HCN, intermediary in numerous reactions, but also highly toxic. Antoine Labarraque - Chemist and pharmacist, born 1777 in Oloron (France), died in Paris 1850. Discovered disinfectant properties of bleach. Labarraque solution: A solution of sodium hypochlorite and water in equal measures. Used to disinfect objects, but not advisable for wounds. Other uses include deodorising and bleaching.Count Claude Berthollet
- French chemist born 1748 in Talloires (France), died in 1822 in Arcueil. He discovered hypochlorites and applied their bleaching properties to cloth. He also perfected chlorate-detonated explosives, and went to Egypt with Napoleon Bonaparte.Hypochlorite:
Salt of hypochlorous acid (sodium hypochlorite is a constituent of “Eau de Javelle,” or common household bleach).Eugène Chevreul
- French chemist born 1786 in Talloires, died in 1889 in Paris. Noted for his research in organic chemistry, particularly the composition of fats, necessary to understand saponification. He also worked on the theory of colour contrasts, and the results of his studies influenced the neo-impressionist painters. Saponification: A chemical reaction from an ester molecule, yielding a carboxylase ion, a conjugated base of carboxylic acid and an alcohol. Ernest Solvay
- Belgian industrialist, born in Rebecq-Rognon (Belgium) (1838-1922). Founder or benefactor of various scientific bodies, he originated a manufacturing process for sodium carbonate whereby a concentrated solution of sodium chloride is saturated with ammonia, carbon dioxide is passed through it, and the product is calcinated (1861-1865).